History of the Framework:

CO ASCD conducted Gallery Gatherings (regional forums) to solicit insights and ideas about what is needed to enhance instruction in ways that better engage students, deepen their content knowledge, and improve their ability to solve real-world problems. These ideas were grouped into seven categories: play, inquiry, personalized learning, experiential learning, competency-based learning, design thinking, and connected communities, which form the categories for the framework.


Purpose of the Framework:

Framework 2021 is designed to assist teachers in engaging students in real world applications of the state's benchmarks for knowledge and skills, including applications that accommodate culturally diverse contexts. Framework 2021 provides teachers with a coordinated matrix of instructional approaches which create learning experiences that prepare students for the world in which they will work and contribute in the future. The framework is designed to strengthen the vertical alignment of teaching and learning skills from preschool to higher education, providing a coherent and cohesive set of learning experiences and fostering positive attitudes toward teaching and learning across the education system.


Philosophy of the Framework:

Framework 2021 is predicated on the idea that learning takes place in and out of the classroom. The framework encourages student learning that is social, collaborative, and supported, in order to move students towards ownership of their education over the course of Pre-K to university. The framework is aligned with Whole Child tenets, providing teachers with techniques to aid students' health, safety, engagement, support, and challenge.

In order to encourage student ownership over time, the framework includes levels of scaffolding. The levels are designed to move from high levels of teacher effort and involvement to high levels of student effort and involvement over time.

Level 1: Demonstrated / Modeled

  • Teacher view: teacher demonstrates a skill set, talking through why the skill set matters and talking through the thinking process, modeling skill from start to finish
  • Student impact: Student hears and sees the process involved behind a skill set; knows expectations for a task

Level 2: Shared

  • Teacher view: teacher starts by framing the goal / process / skill / task and then works with students to complete; teacher asks smaller step questions, teacher walks through and stops to check with the student at various points in the process / skill / task, which serves dual purposes of providing formative assessment and increasing student engagement; teacher provides feedback to fill in any gaps in understanding, whether conceptual or procedural
  • Student impact: Student experiences some engagement with the skill set; student applies his or her own thinking and is able to receive appropriate feedback from the teacher

Level 3: Facilitated

  • Teacher view: teacher provides focus to start a task and to review it; offers students an example to work from to apply the new skill set; teacher asks the big question and then provides students with time for guided practice, encouraging them to ask questions when struggles occur; teacher focuses on metacognition by asking students such questions as, "What skills are you going to use?"***; teacher provides feedback and opportunities for students to revise their work
  • Student impact: Student practices skill set, using available resources in the classroom, including the teacher and other students. Student has more responsibility for his or her learning and has the opportunity to play with ideas and concepts.

Level 4: Student Driven

  • Teacher view: Teacher releases control to students, minimally managing time and resources. Teacher teaches or reteaches occasionally to supplement student process.
  • Student impact: Student continues to practice a skill set, getting closer and closer to mastery. Student has responsibility for his or her choice of resources, procedures, and tasks; student self-assesses more and advocates for himself or herself when struggling.



        Framework 2021 Matrix


        This interactive matrix is designed with Elements that mirror stages of lesson design and implementation along the top row and Instructional Approaches along the left columns. Chose an Instructional Approach that interests you and click on the Element (stage(s) of lesson design) that you need.

        Basic definitions for Elements and Instructional Approaches follow this Matrix.


                 


         


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        Framework Matrix Elements

                 


        In this section, you will find basic definitions for each of the framework elements (Planning, Application, Reflection, Transformation, and Actualization).

        Planning

        How do I plan for a particular Instructional Approach?

        Purpose:  The planning section for each Approach offers guiding questions, planning templates, and best practice tips for guidance in designing lessons that feature the approach.


        Intended Outcomes:

        • Teacher View: understanding of the basics of the approach
        • Student Impact: understanding of the approach or benefiting from teacher's understanding of the approach, which levels the playing field among all learners

        General Planning Questions:

        The following questions are useful for all instructional approaches. The planning section for each instructional approach includes questions that are specific to the instructional approach. Please also refer to this planning template as needed.

        Essential Questions:

        1. What standard(s) is addressed by the lesson?
        2. What are the prior knowledge and experiences for this group of learners?
        3. What learning experiences and student collaboration processes will shape and aid the learning of content and/or skills?
        4. How will learning be monitored / assessed?
        5. What differentiation, interventions, and extension will be available for all students?
        6. How will students take responsibility for and self-asses their own learning?

        Additional Questions to Consider:

        1. What demographic characteristics might be important to consider for this group of learners?
        2. What cognitive level are students expected to achieve?
        3. What content should students know by the end of the lesson?
        4. What skills should students engage with by the end of the lesson?
        5. How will the learning environment be arranged/accessed to support the learning? 
        6. How can I be a resource for students? What other resources will I need to execute this lesson?



            Application

            What does it look like?
            Purpose The application section for each approach offers models, strategies, and examples as a teaching resource.



            Intended Outcomes:

            • Teacher View: gradual release of support from teacher modeling to student ownership
            • Student Impact: achieve learning goals
            Tips for Applying an Instructional Approach:
            • Towards the beginning of instruction, start with teacher modelling of a process, then move to more student-driven work (smaller groups, think-pair-share, individual responses).
            • During the lesson, consider student engagement and when you notice students' attention wander, utilize hooks or re-engagement strategies (i.e. calling on students who are off-task, making a provocative statement, reteaching as needed)
            • Consider moving the classroom arrangement or students to better facilitate the lesson


            – Back to the Matrix –


            Reflection

            How did it go?

            Purpose:  The reflection section for each approach offers guiding questions and techniques for meta-cognitively reflecting on a lesson using that approach, once the lesson has occurred.


            Intended Outcomes:

            • Teacher View: better understanding of the teaching and learning process leading to professional growth
            • Student Impact: practice meta-cognitive and self assessment

            General Reflection Questions:

            The following questions are appropriate for reflecting on any lesson. The reflection section for each instructional approach will include reflection questions specific to the instructional approach, as appropriate.

            1. To what extent did students meet the learning target, goal, or objective?
            2. To what extent did students display ownership of and engagement with the lesson?
            3. What could be changed to improve the outcome of the lesson? (Consider: materials, pacing, goal, physical layout, etc.)
            4. In what ways were the differentiation, extensions, and interventions effective? 
            5. What supports, extensions, and interventions will you implement for students who are partially proficient or unsatisfactory towards the learning target? 
            6. How do I build off of this lesson to further student knowledge and connect to other learning?

            Please feel free to utilize this reflection template as needed.

            – Back to the Matrix –



            Transformation

            How can I act on reflection?

            Purpose:  The transformation section helps teachers use their reflections to enact changes that improve the teaching and learning process. This section includes ideas for acting on reflections and examples of how teachers have used reflection for professional growth.

            Intended Outcomes:

            • Teacher View: professional growth, increased understanding and ability to assist student learning, refined practice over time
            • Student Impact: increased opportunities to apply learning to new situations and other content areas; overall growth as a learner
            •                     
            Questions to Encourage Transformation:
            1. What did I learn?
            2. How can I implement changes for next time? 
            3. What steps do I need to take to transform?
            4. What resources do I need make this transformation?
            5. What support would I need?
            6. What do I hope to accomplish with the transformation?

              Tips for Transformation:
              • Get feedback from students about the lesson
              • Find a peer growth partner (another teacher working to improve similar practices)
              • Observe another teacher
              • Write down goals for improving your practice

              Please feel free to utilize this transformation template to guide your thinking.

                – Back to the Matrix –


                Actualization

                How can I demonstrate leadership and contribute to the profession?

                Purpose:  The actualization section helps teachers to share their practices with the larger educational profession in order to lead improvements in instruction. This section includes ideas for leading instructional improvement and sharing practices.

                Intended Outcomes:

                • Teacher View: increased self-efficacy in their contribution to the profession; deeper understanding of the broader education system; enhanced relationships with colleagues, administrators, students, families, and communities
                • Student Impact: shared collaborative culture which creates a student centered and student friendly environment

                Questions to Guide Actualization:
                1. How have you encouraged a cultural of collective responsibility?
                2. How have you empowered your students or improved their learning experience?
                3. How have you involved families?
                4. How have you involved the wider school community?

                Suggestions for Actualizing Your Practice:
                • Create a demo lesson that you share with one or more other teachers
                • Invite other teachers to observe your classroom
                • Create and present a professional development around your inquiry-based learning
                • Write an article for your school newsletter with reflection from students
                • Present at a conference 
                • Advocate for the use of inquiry-based learning within the school, district, or state



                Framework Matrix Instructional Approaches



                             


                In this section, you will find basic definitions and information for each instructional approach.


                Purpose:  The base section for each approach offers a basic definition and information to help users develop a surface level understanding of the approach.

                Intended Outcomes:

                • Teacher View: Understanding of the basics of the approach
                • Student Impact: Understanding of the approach itself or benefit from teacher's understanding which levels the playing field among all learners
                Note:  at this point we're only addressing "inquiry-based learning"; the fundamentals for the other instructional approaches are currently in development.  If you are interested in joining our team of educators developing this exciting project please email: coascd.president@gmail.com 





                Inquiry-Based Learning

                At base, inquiry-based learning is seeking understanding through questioning. Students utilize intrinsic curiosity to construct questions around topics and seek thorough answers to those questions. Teachers that encourage inquiry-based approaches can in turn help students to thrive personally and professionally, even beyond the classroom.

                Please see the following resources for a more comprehensive view into inquiry-based learning:




                Inquiry Based Learning –Planning

                Inquiry-based learning involves the following six steps:
                1. Explore and make an observation
                2. Question
                3. Investigate
                4. Answer
                5. Reflect
                6. Discuss

                Below is a list of general questions to keep in mind while planning your lesson. Beneath those, there are inquiry-based resources. 

                Essential Planning Questions:

                1. What standard(s) is addressed by the lesson?
                2. What are the prior knowledge and experiences for this group of learners?
                3. What learning experiences and student collaboration processes will shape and aid the learning of content and/or skills?
                4. How will learning be monitored / assessed?
                5. What differentiation, interventions, and extension will be available for all students?
                6. How will students take responsibility for and self-asses their own learning?
                Inquiry-Specific Tips:
                • Remember to model this skill set for students, regardless of the level of scaffolding involved in the overall lesson(s): start small with an open-ended question that students in turn gather some data, evidence, or experimentation towards and then model potential end products. Consider a lesson or content you're already teaching
                • Ask: what level of inquiry is most useful for the learning target, goal, or objective and students prior experience with inquiry-based learning? Structured Inquiry? Controlled Inquiry? Guided? Free? (See this Edutopia article for more information.)
                • Consider and communicate: scope, amount of time spent over however many sessions, relationships to other topics, topical focus, age appropriateness, skills involved, resources needed, and level of collaboration
                Feel free to use this planning template to help.



                Inquiry Based Learning –Application

                This section includes information about models for inquiry-based learning, sample lessons, videos that illustrate what inquiry-based learning looks like in the classroom, and strategies for addressing various components of inquiry-based learning, such as questioning and engaging students in discussions.  Several of the resources (e.g., Edutopia, Teaching Channel) are good starting points because they have many links on their sites that allow an in-depth exploration of the topic.


                Tips to Guide Application of Inquiry:

                When using Demonstrated / Modeled level of scaffolding: 

                • Explore and Make an Observation / Question: these would be done ahead of time by teacher, unless the teacher would like to model these processes for students as well
                • Investigate: model age appropriate means of finding sources and determining their credibility as needed, create a template for recording the information found during the investigation step
                • Answer: model a think-aloud to determine the relevancy of information towards the question, walk through prioritizing information by relevancy, and translating multiple sources it into a central answer
                • Reflect: create a template to reflect on the answer found that includes such prompts as "What did you learn about the topic and the process?", "What surprised you?", and "What new questions do you have?"
                • Discuss: provide an option for what information is presented, how it is presented, and to whom; model presenting findings to an audience

                When using Student-Driven level of scaffolding

                • Explore and Make an Observation: provide students with time to explore a topic that interests them in relation to intended content or skills, teacher walks around during this exploration time and redirects as needed or asks follow up questions to narrow focus 
                • Question: students produce a question that is both open-ended and manageable, students evaluate whether the question is aligned with learning target and can justify the alignment, teacher provides prompts and feedback on the scope and format of the question (open-ended vs. closed) as necessary
                • Investigate: students utilize age appropriate and credible resources towards collecting information, students create their own means for organizing information, teacher suggests additional resources or facilitates access to resources as needed
                • Answer: students analyze and synthesis the information towards an answer to the question, then determine whether more information is needed towards answer; teacher provides opportunities for students to receive feedback on their conclusions
                • Reflect: students create a format for self-assessment and reflection and follows through on that process, teacher may view and respond to reflection as needed
                • Discuss: students determine what information is presented how it is presented, and to whom; audience provides feedback on the students' presentations
                Resources:
                • [Sample Lesson] BetterLesson.com : Sample Lessons
                • [Video] Thirteen.org : Sample lessons, videos, how to use technology, assessment, and parent involvement
                • [Video] TeachingChannel.orgset of videos on elements of inquiry-based learning (e.g., asking effective questions)
                • [Article] ASCD : article about using inquiry in science, with example
                • [Article] YouthLearn.org : article describing inquiry-based learning and how to use it (includes explanation of steps)
                • [Article] Edutopia.org : article about strategies for fostering student questions; links to other information about inquiry-based learning; includes examples
                • [Sample Lessons] Edutopia.org : Web page that lists resources available on the Edutopia website related to inquiry-based learning; includes examples of tools from schools using inquiry-based learning
                • [Article] Edutopia.org
                • [Article] ASCD : sample science lesson using Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend model
                • [Article] ASCD : article about integrating arts using inquiry-based learning: includes an example
                • [Research] Center for Inspired Teaching
                • [Research] Friesan and Scott
                • [Research] Universal Journal of Educational Research
                • [Research] National Academic Press



                Inquiry Based Learning –Reflection

                Feel free to utilize the reflection template after your lesson.



                General Reflection Questions: 
                1. To what extent did students meet the learning target, goal, or objective?
                2. To what extent did students display ownership of and engagement with the lesson?
                3. What could be changed to improve the outcome of the lesson? (Consider: materials, pacing, goal, physical layout, etc.)
                4. In what ways were the differentiation, extensions, and interventions effective? 
                5. What supports, extensions, and interventions will you implement for students who are partially proficient or unsatisfactory towards the learning target? 
                6. How do I build off of this lesson to further student knowledge and connect to other learning?
                Inquiry-Based Learning Reflection Questions:
                1. How able were students to develop clear, authentic, and appropriate questions? Did their questions lead to deeper understanding of the topic?
                2. How well were students able to create and/or follow the inquiry process? (i.e. collaboration, using additional resources, supporting their conclusions, etc.)
                3. Were students able to make connections to their own lives, education, and the world around them?
                4. Was the level of structure provided appropriate to students, and do they need more or less teacher direction for next time?



                  Inquiry Based Learning –Transformation


                  Feel free to utilize this transformation template as needed.




                  Questions to Encourage Transformation:
                  1. What did I learn?
                  2. How can I implement changes for next time? 
                  3. What steps do I need to take to transform?
                  4. What resources do I need make this transformation?
                  5. What support would I need?
                  6. What do I hope to accomplish with the transformation?


                  Tips for Transformation in Inquiry-Based Practice:

                  • Get feedback from students about the inquiry lesson
                  • Partner with another teacher for feedback regarding inquiry instruction
                  • Observe another teacher modeling inquiry-based instruction inside and outside the content area or grade level
                  • Write down goals for improving your practice
                  • Provide students with a list of base questions, question stems, or provocative statements
                  Inquiry Based Learning –Actualization






                  Questions to Guide Actualization:
                  1. How have you encouraged a cultural of collective responsibility?
                  2. How have you empowered your students or improved their learning experience?
                  3. How have you involved families?
                  4. How have you involved the wider school community?

                  Suggestions for Actualizing Your Practice:
                  • Create a demo lesson that you share with one or more other teachers
                  • Invite other teachers to observe your classroom
                  • Create and present a professional development around your inquiry-based learning
                  • Write an article for your school newsletter with reflection from students
                  • Present at a conference 
                  • Advocate for the use of inquiry-based learning within the school, district, or state








                  Play Based Learning

                  Play-based learning involves students making sense of the world around them and develop social and cognitive skills through people, objects, and representations, including games, role play, and/or creation. 


                  Currently in development

                  – Back to the Matrix –



                  Connected Communities

                  Learning locally and globally through interaction with others in your own classroom, school, district, community, or other settings.

                  Currently in development




                  Personalized Learning

                  Curriculum and learning experiences that are tailored to the strengths, needs, and interests of a specific learner or group of learners.

                  For an overview of personalized learning, please see this resource.
                  Currently in development

                  – Back to the Matrix –



                  Experiential Learning

                  Experiential learning is based around a combination of hands-on activities, reflection, and application, with a heavy emphasis on the final two steps to solidify and extend skills, attitudes, or knowledge.
                  Currently in development

                  – Back to the Matrix –



                  Competency-Based Learning

                  In competency-based education, the focus is on what a student learns rather than how it is learned and how long it takes. There is less focus on structured time frames and locations and more on flexible, performance-based outcomes that indicate mastery of a skill or knowledge.
                  Currently in development



                  Design Thinking

                  Design thinking generates ideas, structures, and pathways by which to approach complex tasks or problems. The process is often collaborative and the end result is often a tangible product.

                  Currently in development


                  – Back to the Matrix –



                  Note:  at this point we're only addressing "inquiry-based learning" other fundamental elements are currently in development.  If you are interested in joining our team of educators developing this exciting project please email: coascd.president@gmail.com 


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